发布日期:2022-03-15 17:51 来源:未知 阅读: 次
不过地热能的开发难题似乎因一项技术的出现而改变——在2020年从美国麻省理工学院（MIT）独立出来的一家公司“Quaise Energy”正在研发一个可以蒸发岩石的钻头，计划往地下钻20公里深，最终目标将超深、超临界地热能商业化。而迄今为止，该公司已得到约6300 万美元的风投资金，可见其关(可)注（行）度（性）之高。
相信每个人都知道地核很热——中心的温度估计约为 5200 °C，这是由放射性元素衰变产生的热量与地球形成过程中仍然存在的热量相结合产生的——这是一场灾难性的暴力事件，当旋转的气体和尘埃云被自身的重力压成一个球，这就是地热能源行业喜欢称其为“我们脚下的太阳”的原因。
根据麻省理工学院高级聚变研究工程师保罗·沃斯科夫（Paul Woskov）的说法，地球表面以下的热量如此之多，仅利用其中的 0.1% 就可以满足整个世界超过 2000 万年的能源需求。
如果我们可以钻得足够深，我们可以将地热发电站放在我们想要的任何地方，但这比听起来要难。地壳的厚度在 5-75 公里之间变化，最薄的部分往往在深海中。
人类历史上曾钻出的最深的洞是科拉超深钻孔（The Kola Superdeep Borehole），这个位于挪威边境附近的俄罗斯项目于 1970 年开始实施，旨在将地壳一直穿透到地幔，其中一个钻孔在 1989 年达到了12262米的垂直深度。虽然团队预计到1990 年将达到13.5 公里，到 1993 年达到15 公里，但他们在 1992 年被迫停止运营。在那个深度，钻探团队预计温度会在 100°C左右，但实际上他们发现它更接近 180°C。岩石的密度低于预期，多孔性更强，这些因素与高温相结合，创造了噩梦般的钻井条件。
另外德国在 80 年代后期花25亿欧元也钻一个——KTB 钻孔，但这个钻孔项目在结束前只达到了 9101 米。同时钻探记录显示，温度上升的时间比预期的要早，KTB 团队也惊讶地发现这个深度的岩石不是固体，大量的流体和气体涌入钻孔，使工作更加复杂。简单来说，使用传统设备在非常深的地下钻探在技术上是可行的，但钻得越深，温度越高，越要不停地停钻换钻头，成本太高不可行。
其实在90年代后期的军事实验中，研究人员利用激光辅助钻头进行钻探，可比传统钻孔快 10-100 倍地穿过岩石，但激光辅佐钻孔也不现实，比如能量在钻孔的过程中熔化钻孔轴、激光技术昂贵等等。
正所谓柳暗花明又一村，随着核聚变技术的发展，科学家发现毫米波是大幅加热等离子体的绝佳方式，如果利用毫米波来钻探是否可行呢？频率为 30 至 300 GHz、波长为 1 毫米至 10 毫米的超高频范围（EHF）的射频或电磁（非电离）辐射称为毫米波（MMW），其高能量束可熔化和蒸发岩石。
因此在2000年左右，毫米波钻探技术开始被研究并为人所知，而从麻省理工学院的等离子科学与融合中心独立出来的“Quaise Energy”似乎是最接近走出实验室并在现场进行测试的公司。在2017年的实验中，研究人员用大约 1.4 MW 的 3.2 毫米（95 GHz）波长光束在玄武岩中打出一个直径为 20 厘米的孔。
而Quaise Energy的最终目标是往地下钻到20公里深。根据其公布的时间计划，第一台能够到达 100 至 1000 米深度的钻探机器应该可以在 2024 年进行演示，并计划在 2028 年能够开始接管旧的燃煤发电站，并将其转变为蒸汽动力装置，尽管目前尚不清楚他们当时将在哪里或在什么深度钻探。
物质的超临界状态是在高于其临界值的温度和压力下，并且在携带物质时观察到。当水的压力高于 22 MPa，温度高于 374 °C时，它变成“超临界”，即一个既不是液态也不是气态的状态，但同时具有与液态、气态相同的特性。在这个状态下，每一滴超临界水的质量比水或蒸汽高得多，这意味着它每单位质量的能量高出 4 到 10 倍。其次超临界水是如此的热，以至于它转换成电能的卡诺效率几乎翻了一番。也就是说，更多的能量来自于 20 公里深度的地热井，从而产生更多的电力。
American company plans to drill 20 kilometers deep into the ground to release unlimited energy
2022-03-15 17:51 Source:http://www.xoam.com.cn/shichang… translation by Google
Geothermal energy has not always been popular. The main reasons are “low thermal conductivity of rocks”, “low efficiency”, “excavation cost” and other issues. Even in the United States, which uses geothermal power generation, it only accounts for 0.4%. its electricity.
However, the development problem of geothermal energy seems to be changed by the emergence of a technology-a company “Quaise Energy”, which was independent from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States in 2020, is developing a drill bit that can evaporate rocks and plans to go underground Drilling to a depth of 20 kilometers, the ultimate goal is to commercialize ultra-deep, supercritical geothermal energy. And so far, the company has received about 63 million US dollars in venture capital, which shows its high degree of attention.
I’m sure everyone knows that the Earth’s core is hot – the temperature in the center is estimated to be around 5200 °C due to the combination of the heat from the decay of radioactive elements combined with the heat that was still present during the formation of the Earth, a swirling cloud of gas and dust is crushed into a ball by its own gravity, which is why the geothermal energy industry likes to call it “the sun beneath our feet.”
According to Paul Woskov, a senior fusion research engineer at MIT, there is so much heat below the Earth’s surface that just 0.1 percent of it could meet the entire world’s energy needs for more than 20 million years.
But the problem right now is that drilling equipment for oil and gas cannot withstand extreme depths of ultra-high temperature and ultra-high pressure, so our geothermal power supply is mostly limited to volcanic regions (like Iceland or El Salvador) or reservoirs near the surface in hot regions .
And the cost of drilling with existing technology also increases exponentially with depth—more than twice the cost of drilling to twice the depth, which greatly limits where we can build geothermal power plants.
If we can drill deep enough, we can put geothermal power plants anywhere we want, but it’s harder than it sounds. The thickness of the crust varies between 5-75 kilometers, and the thinnest parts tend to be in the deep ocean.
The deepest hole ever drilled in human history is The Kola Superdeep Borehole, a Russian project near the Norwegian border started in 1970 to penetrate the crust all the way to the mantle, one of which The borehole reached a vertical depth of 12,262 meters in 1989.
Although the team expected to reach 13.5 kilometers by 1990 and 15 kilometers by 1993, they were forced to cease operations in 1992. At that depth, the drilling team expected the temperature to be around 100°C, but in reality they found it to be closer to 180°C. The rock was less dense than expected and more porous, and these factors combined with the high temperatures created nightmarish drilling conditions.
In addition, Germany spent 2.5 billion euros in the late 1980s to drill a hole – the KTB hole, but this drilling project only reached 9101 meters before the end. At the same time drilling records showed that the temperature rose earlier than expected, the KTB team was also surprised to find that the rock at this depth was not solid, and a large influx of fluid and gas into the borehole complicated the work.
Simply put, it is technically feasible to use conventional equipment to drill very deep underground, but the deeper you drill, the higher the temperature, and the more you have to stop and change the drill bit, the cost is too high to be feasible.
In fact, in military experiments in the late 1990s, researchers used laser-assisted drills to drill through rocks 10-100 times faster than traditional drilling, but laser-assisted drilling was unrealistic. For example, the energy in the process of drilling Melting drill shafts, expensive laser technology, etc.
As the saying goes, there is another village in the dark. With the development of nuclear fusion technology, scientists have found that millimeter waves are an excellent way to heat plasma greatly.
Is it feasible to use millimeter waves to drill? Radio frequency or electromagnetic (non-ionizing) radiation in the ultra-high frequency range (EHF) with frequencies of 30 to 300 GHz and wavelengths of 1 mm to 10 mm, known as millimeter waves (MMW), with high-energy beams that melt and vaporize rock.
So around 2000, mmWave drilling started being researched and known, and Quaise Energy, a spin-off from MIT’s Center for Plasma Science and Fusion, seems to be the closest thing to getting out of the lab and testing it in the field company. In the 2017 experiment, the researchers punched a 20-centimeter-diameter hole in basalt with a beam of about 1.4 MW at a 3.2-millimeter (95 GHz) wavelength.
Therefore, “Quaise Energy” is developing a new ultra-deep drilling method based on breakthrough fusion research and mature drilling practice – traditional drilling equipment combined with cyclotron-driven high-power millimeter waves, referred to as “wave drilling”.
Traditional rotary drilling is used to drill into the subterranean formation first, then switch to high-power millimeter wave to reach unprecedented depths while pumping gas (nitrogen or argon) to evaporate the rock formation and bring the gas-evaporated material to the surface.
The ultimate goal of Quaise Energy is to drill down to a depth of 20 kilometers. According to its published schedule, the first drilling machine capable of reaching depths of 100 to 1,000 meters should be available for demonstration in 2024, with plans to start taking over old coal-fired power stations and converting them to steam power in 2028 devices, although it is unclear where or at what depth they would be drilling at the time.
Some people may wonder, does “Quaise Energy” have to drill 20 kilometers underground to develop geothermal energy? The key reason here is to look for higher temperatures and pressures in the Earth’s crust to achieve supercritical water conditions.
The supercritical state of matter is at temperatures and pressures above its critical value, and is observed while carrying matter. When the pressure of water is higher than 22 MPa and the temperature is higher than 374 °C, it becomes “supercritical”, that is, a state that is neither a liquid nor a gas, but at the same time has the same properties as liquid and gas.
In this state, each drop of supercritical water has a much higher mass than water or steam, which means it has 4 to 10 times more energy per unit mass.
Second, supercritical water is so hot that it nearly doubles the Carnot efficiency of converting it into electricity. That is, more energy comes from geothermal wells at a depth of 20 kilometers, resulting in more electricity.
In the end, if Quaise is successful, we won’t need to clear large swathes of land for solar installations and wind turbines, or install huge backup batteries – we can just drill next to existing power plants, and use geothermal energy, and it’s Run 24/7 and energy issues will no longer be an issue.
For now, this technology is still a pipe dream that will take time to prove. But either way, this less-utopian-looking technology is at least worth a try.
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We Can really Save the Planet!! Deep-Geo Drilling method offers Endless free Steam energy Anywhere
Feel the Heat: Paul Woskov of MIT holds water-cooling lines leading to a test chamber, and a sample of rock with a hole made by a beam from a gyrotron. Photo: Paul Rivenberg/MIT https://thefreeonline.com/2022/03/…
In just 2 years the first Deep-Geo well will be drilled. With new millimeter technology rocks can be vaporized in a self sealing borehole up to 20kms deep.
It’s not toxic, reaches only the hot rocks well before magma, and doesn’t fracture or poison ground water like fracking.
And you can do it almost anywhere.. that is: right next to redundant coal, oil and gas power stations, supplying the super heated steam to power their turbines, without oil, gas coal or nuclear.. 100% CO2 free! (unless we include CO2 released in the manufacture of the drilling equipment)
We live on a piece that fell off the sun. Just 20kms down the rocks are at 500 C. All we need to do is drill down, pump in water and use superheated steam for free electricity lasting millions of years.
- Deep-Geo is not fully demonstrated yet.
- It’s happening in the US where the oil/gas lobby may try to stop it.
- It won’t end capitalism, maybe if it goes viral worldwide it could slow down the Climate Catastrophe, though ecocide would continue.
The challenge for Activists against Climate Meltdown is to evaluate the reality of the Deep-Geo promise and, if it really works as promised, to support and demand it, while continuing to campaign against ongoing Capitalist Ecocide and Biosphere collapse.
The Perfect Energy Source Is Already Here – Endless Geothermal Is Poised for Release From Deep in the Earth
The base of the new drilling method was discovered ‘accidentally’ by Paul Woskov and his team and developed for 10 years at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center before various companies began trials.
As physicists work in the nuclear fusion sector, they inadvertently invented a tool that could allow geothermal plants to deliver limitless clean energy by harnessing the power of the Earth.
That tool is a large millimeter-wave laser drill that will allow engineers to bore down more than 12.4 miles (20 km) into the Earth’s crust to harness the heat from the planet’s core.
This laser drilling technology is being pioneered by a spin-off company called Quaise from MIT .
The bottom line is that this idea is not science fiction, and Quaise has the money to put several full-scale demonstration machines into action by 2024, and hopes to have a 100- megawatt supercritical geothermal plant in operation by 2026.
At 12.4 miles into the Earth’s crust, temperatures soar to 500°C, a sector-redefining level compared to traditional drill bit borehole temperatures of around 200°C. At this stage and depth, water under the ground becomes “supercritical,” a state of matter where it’s neither a gas nor a liquid.
“A power plant that uses supercritical water as the working fluid can extract up to 10 times more useful energy from each drop when compared to non-supercritical plants,” a spokesperson from Quaise told New Atlas. “Aiming for supercritical conditions is key to attaining power densities consistent with fossil fuels.”
A recycling masterclass
It’s perhaps ironic that humans would seek to harness the energy of the sun and stars in a nuclear fusion reactor when there is 20 billion times more heat under our feet than the entire world’s energy consumption. Merely 0.03% of global energy is delivered from geothermal despite this richness.
A virtually limitless supply of energy exists in the form of this supercritical fluid snaking its way through the crust and mantle of the planet, and just 0.01% of it would provide far more wattage than the world uses.
In order to reach it though, we need better drilling technology, and Quaise is taking advantage of the work put into a 1970s piece of technology called a gyrotron.
When needing to heat water into a plasma at the heart of a nuclear fusion reactor, scientists need to generate between 90-150 million degrees Celsius of heat. This has been done by both lasers and super magnets.
The gyrotron is one of those lasers, and it generates electromagnetic waves in the millimeter-wave spectrum, shorter than microwaves and longer than infrared or visible light. Designed, invented, and tested in the USSR, the device is excellent at rapidly heating up a plasma without substantial energy usage.
So, accessing already existing energy with already existing technology, Quaise has proved itself remarkably efficient. They’ve raised $63 million in funding and they’re looking to cut out fossil fuels in a real way before the end of the decade.
Their next planned step may be the greatest recycling trick in the industry.
As coal-fired power plants continue to be shuttered around the world, their giant, already established infrastructure for converting steam into electricity, large electricity distribution equipment, and talented workforce could simply be taken over by Quaise, who could merely replace the coal-fired components with those meant for harnessing supercritical water.
“There are somewhere upwards of 8,500 coal-fired power plants around the world, totaling over 2,000 gigawatts of capacity, and they’ll all have to find something else to do by 2050,” writes Loz Blain at New Atlas.
Blain argues this is more revolutionary than nuclear fusion, and the beauty of the design, if it works, is that the technology originally made for fusion reactors could end up putting them out of a job.
At 12-15 miles below the Earth’s surface, it doesn’t matter where the drill or ex-coal plant is located, the heat will be pretty much the same.
In fact, the world would be set for a paradigm shift.
Since unlimited clean energy could be obtained within most nations, it would untether them from geo-political concerns about oil-rich countries like the US and their human rights abuses.
On land and sea, birds and wildlife would be untouched by any massive polluting oil spills that would become a thing of the past.
The challenge for activists against Climate Meltdown is to evaluate the reality of the Deep-Geo promise and if it really works to support and demand it, while continuing to campaign against ongoing Capitalist Ecocide and Biosphere collapse.
The world needs to find more environmentally friendly resources. Geothermal energy could be the solution